GREATH 5 INVENSION IN AUTOMOBILES
The first designs for the windscreen wiper are credited to Polish concert pianist Józef Hofmann, and Mills Munitions, Birmingham who also claimed to have been the first to patent windscreen wipers in England. At least three inventors patented windscreen cleaning devices at around the same time in 1903; Mary Anderson, Robert Douglass, and John Apjohn. In April 1911, a patent for windscreen wipers was registered by Sloan & Lloyd Barnes, patent agents of Liverpool, England, for Gladstone Adams of Whitley Bay.
American inventor Mary Anderson is popularly credited with devising the first operational windshield wiper in 1903. In Anderson’s patent, she called her invention a “window cleaning device” for electric cars and other vehicles. Operated via a lever from inside a vehicle, her version of windshield wipers closely resembles the windshield wiper found on many early car models. Anderson had a model of her design manufactured, then filed a patent (US 743,801) on June 18, 1903 that was issued to her by the US Patent Office on November 10, 1903
A similar device is recorded 3 months prior to Anderson’s patent, with Robert A Douglass filing a patent for a “locomotive-cab-window cleaner” on 12 March 1903
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The invention is credited independently to the American John W. Hetrick who in 1951 registered for the first airbag patent that was granted #2,649,311 by the United States Patent Office on 18 August 1953. German engineer Walter Linderer who filed German patent #896,312 on 6 October 1951 was issued on 12 November 1953, approximately three months after American John Hetrick. Hetrick and Linderer’s airbags were both based on a compressed air system, either released by spring, bumper contact or by the driver. Later research during the 1960s showed that compressed air could not inflate the mechanically based airbags fast enough for maximum safety, leading to the current chemical and electrically based airbags.
Seat belts were invented by English engineer George Cayley in the mid-19th century, though Edward J. Claghorn of New York, was granted the first patent (U.S. Patent 312,085, on February 10, 1885 for a safety belt). Claghorn was granted United States Patent #312,085 for a Safety-Belt for tourists, painters, firemen, etc. who are being raised or lowered, described in the patent as “designed to be applied to the person, and provided with hooks and other attachments for securing the person to a fixed object.” he 3-point seatbelt was developed to its modern form by Swedish inventor Nils Bohlin for Volvo—who introduced it in 1959 as standard equipment.
4.Anti-lock braking system(ABS)
The first patented system was created by German engineer Karl Wessel in 1928. Wessel, however, never developed a working product and neither did Robert Bosch who produced a similar patent eight years later. In 1958, a Royal Enfield Super Meteor motorcycle was used by the Road Research Laboratory to test the Maxaret anti-lock brake. The experiments demonstrated that anti-lock brakes can be of great value to motorcycles, for which skidding is involved in a high proportion of accidents. Stopping distances were reduced in most of the tests compared with locked wheel braking, particularly on slippery surfaces, in which the improvement could be as much as 30 percent.
Many patents had been filed covering tubeless tires. Killen Tire applied for a patent in 1928 and was granted GB patent 329955 in the UK in 1930. The Wingfoot Corporation, a subsidiary of Goodyear Tire were granted a patent in South Africa in 1944. Due to technical problems, most of these designs only saw limited production or were abandoned.
Frank Herzegh working for BF Goodrich applied for a patent in 1946 and eventually received US patent 2587470 in 1952 in the United States. By 1955 tubeless tires became standard equipment on new cars. BF Goodrich had to defend their patent in court several times, due to the similarities of previous designs. The primary difference between the BF Goodrich design and their predecessors was the usage of butyl rubber, which was more resistant to air leakage than the natural rubber used in the other designs.