What is NRC and CAA? Documents to submit for this
Now every place in the Country are protesting against the act of NRC (National Register of Citizens of India),CAA(
Citizenship (Amendment) Act).Now to discuss about what is this.
National Register of Citizens of India
- The National Register of Citizen (NRC) is a registry maintained by the Government of India containing names & certain relevant information for identification of Indian citizens of the Assam state.
- The register was specifically made for Assam state.
- The process of updating Assam’s part of NRC started in 2013 when the Supreme Court of India passed an order for it to be updated.
- The final updated NRC for Assam, published 31 August 2019, contained 31 million names out of 33 million population, leaving out about 1.9 million applicants.
- The Government of Bangladesh has indicated that Bangladesh is prepared to take back any of its citizens residing in India if evidence is offered.
- NRC is an official record of those who are legal Indian citizens.
- It includes demographic information about all those individuals who qualify as citizens of India as per the Citizenship Act, 1955.
- The register was first prepared after the 1951 Census of India and since then it has not been updated until recently.
- Why NRC in Assam :In 2013, Assam Public Works and Assam Sanmilita Mahasangha & Ors filed a writ petition before the Supreme Court demanding the deletion of illegal migrants’ names from voter lists in Assam.
CAA(Citizenship (Amendment) Act)
- The Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019 was passed by the Parliament of India on 11 December 2019.
- It amended the Citizenship Act of 1955 by providing a path to Indian citizenship for Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain, Parsi, and Christian religious minorities from the neighboring Muslim majority countries of Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan.
- The act was the first time religion had been used as a criterion for citizenship under Indian law.
- Under the 2019 amendment, migrants who entered India by 31 December 2014, and had suffered “religious persecution or fear of religious persecution” in their country of origin, were made eligible for citizenship by the new law.
- The amendment also relaxed the residence requirement for naturalization of these migrants from 11 years to 5 years.
- According to the Indian Intelligence Bureau, the act will add about 31,300 new citizens to India’s 1.3 billion population. About 25,400 Hindus, 5,800 Sikhs along with less than 100 Christians and other religious minorities are expected to be immediately eligible for citizenship under the amended Citizenship Act.
- The Bill amends the Citizenship Act of 1955 to give eligibility for Indian citizenship to illegal migrants who are Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis and Christians from Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan, and who entered India on or before 31 December 2014.
- The bill does not include Muslims. Immediate beneficiaries of the Bill, according to Intelligence Bureau records, will be just over 30,000 people.
- India’s previous citizenship law, Citizenship Act 1955, did not consider religious affiliation to be a criterion for eligibility.
- Under the Act, one of the requirements for citizenship by naturalisation is that the applicant must have resided in India during the last 12 months, and for 11 of the previous 14 years.
- The Bill relaxes this 11-year requirement to five years for persons belonging to the same six religions and three countries. The bill exempts the tribal areas of Assam, Meghalaya, and Tripura from its applicability.
- It also exempts the areas regulated through the Inner Line Permit, which include Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Nagaland.
- The inclusion of Manipur in Inner Line Permit was also announced on 9 December 2019.
- The Bill includes new provisions for cancellation of the registration of Overseas Citizenship of India (OCI) such as registration through fraud, in case of OCI holder sentenced to imprisonment for two or more years within five years of registration and in necessity in the interest of sovereignty and security of India.
- It also includes a provision on violation of any law notified by the central government.
- It also adds the opportunity for the OCI holder to be heard before the cancellation.
Who are an citizen of India?
As per the Citizenship Act, 1955, every person born in India:
(a) on or after the 26th day of January 1950, but before the 1st day of July 1987;
(b) on or after the 1st day of July 1987, but before the commencement of the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2003 and either of whose parents is a citizen of India at the time of his birth;
(c) on or after the commencement of the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2003, where-
(i) both of his parents are citizens of India; or
(ii) one of whose parents is a citizen of India and the other is not an illegal migrant at the time of his birth, shall be a citizen of India by birth.
Documents to register in NRC
- There is no compulsion to submit any document of the parents, the clarification came amid citizenship concerns.
- The explainer said that it has not been finalised. “This is likely to include voter cards, passports, Aadhaar, licenses, insurance papers, birth certificates, school leaving certificates, documents relating to land or home or other similar documents issued by government officials.
- Just like people present their identity cards or any other document for registering names in the voter list or getting Aadhaar card made, similar documents need to be provided for the NRC as and when it is carried out, it said.
- No need have to prove any ancestry by presenting any document like ID cards or birth certificates of parents/ ancestors dating back to before 1971. That was valid only for the Assam NRC and mandated by the Assam Accord and implemented on the directions of Supreme Court. NRC procedure in the rest of the country is entirely different as provided under The Citizenship (Registration of Citizens and Issue of National Identity Cards) Rules, 2003.